## Mathematics: Euclid, some early editions.

The first printed edition of Euclid’s *Elements* was published in Venice in 1482, only two decades after Gutenberg, with beautiful woodcuts, hand-colored **(Figure 1)** . The printer Erhard Ratdolt used copper wires in plaster blocks to print mathematical diagrams. Before this, without numerous diagrams, how could anyone print scientific works?

The Medici press in Rome printed an Arabic version of Euclid in 1594 **(Figure 2)** . Printing Arabic characters with removable type was something of a technological feat. **(Figure 3)**

The first English printing of Euclid was by the notorious mathematician and scholar of the occult, John Dee, in 1570 **(Figure 4)** . This copy still has the first pop-ups! **(Figure 5)** **(Figure 6)** What a great way to learn solid geometry.

Exhibit credit: Kerry Magruder, with the assistance of , Marilyn B. Ogilvie, Duane H. D. Roller.

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